In this note we discuss the phase space of the O(2N) vector model in the presence of a quadratic and a quartic interaction by writing the large-N effective potential using large charge methods in dimensions 2<D<4 and 4<D<6. Based on a simple discussion of the convexity properties of the grand potential, we find very different behavior in the two regimes: while in 2<D<4, the theory is well-behaved, the model in 4<D<6 leads to a complex CFT in the UV, consistently with earlier results. We also find a new metastable massive phase in the high-energy regime for the theory on the cylinder.
Rafael Moser, Domenico Orlando, Susanne Reffert
2021
We discuss the O(2N) vector model in three dimensions. While this model flows to the Wilson-Fisher fixed point when fine tuned, working in a double-scaling limit of large N and large charge allows us to study the model away from the critical point and even to follow the RG flow from the UV to the IR. The crucial observation is that the effective potential – at leading order in N but exact to all orders in perturbation theory – is the Legendre transform of the grand potential at fixed charge. This allows us to write an effective action and the free energy for generic values of the coupling in a very simple fashion and without evaluating any Feynman diagrams.
Domenico Orlando, Susanne Reffert, Tim Schmidt
2021
We show that the standard notion of entanglement is not defined for gravitationally anomalous two-dimensional theories because they do not admit a local tensor factorization of the Hilbert space into local Hilbert spaces. Qualitatively, the modular flow cannot act consistently and unitarily in a finite region, if there are different numbers of states with a given energy traveling in the two opposite directions. We make this precise by decomposing it into two observations: First, a two-dimensional CFT admits a consistent quantization on a space with boundary only if it is not anomalous. Second, a local tensor factorization always leads to a definition of consistent, unitary, energy-preserving boundary condition. As a corollary we establish a generalization of the Nielsen-Ninomiya theorem to all two-dimensional unitary local QFTs: No continuum quantum field theory in two dimensions can admit a lattice regulator unless its gravitational anomaly vanishes. We also show that the conclusion can be generalized to six dimensions by dimensional reduction on a four-manifold of nonvanishing signature. We advocate that these points be used to reinterpret the gravitational anomaly quantum-information-theoretically, as a fundamental obstruction to the localization of quantum information.
Simeon Hellerman, Domenico Orlando, Masataka Watanabe
2021
In this review we study quantum field theories and conformal field theories with global symmetries in the limit of large charge for some of the generators of the symmetry group. At low energy the sectors of the theory with large charge are described by a hybrid form of Goldstone’s theorem, involving its relativistic and non-relativistic forms. The associated effective field theory in the infrared allows the computation of anomalous dimensions, and operator product expansion coefficients in a well defined expansion in inverse powers of the global charge. This applies even when the initial theory does not have a reliable semiclassical approximation. The large quantum number expansion complements, and may provide an alternative approach to the bootstrap and numerical treatments. We will present some general features of the symmetry breaking patterns and the low-energy effective actions, and a fairly large number of examples exhibiting the salient features of this method.
Luis Álvarez-Gaumé, Domenico Orlando, Susanne Reffert
Phys.Rept. 933 (2021) 1-66,
2020
We study the $O(4)$ Wilson–Fisher fixed point in $2+1$ dimensions in fixed large-charge sectors identified by products of two spin-$j$ representations $(j_L,j_R)$. Using effective field theory we derive a formula for the conformal dimensions $D(j_L, j_R)$ of the leading operator in terms of two constants, $c_{ 3 / 2}$ and $c_{ 1 / 2}$, when the sum $j_L + j_R$ is much larger than the difference $|j_L-j_R|$. We compute $D(j_L,j_R)$ when $j_L= j_R$ with Monte Carlo calculations in a discrete formulation of the $O(4)$ lattice field theory, and show excellent agreement with the predicted formula and estimate $c_{ 3 / 2}=1.068(4)$ and $c_{ 1 / 2}=0.083(3)$.
Debasish Banerjee, Shailesh Chandrasekharan, Domenico Orlando, Susanne Reffert
in PRL,
2019